Home 3d Printing Genetic Engineering in Agriculture 2021-2031: IDTechEx

Genetic Engineering in Agriculture 2021-2031: IDTechEx

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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1. 21st century agriculture is facing major challenges 1.2. The need for alternatives to conventional herbicides 1.3. Crop biotechnology 1.4. How could crop biotechnology help? 1.5. Genetics can help save dying crops 1.6. A comparison of genetic engineering techniques 1.7. Genetic engineering is widely used in agriculture 1.8. The Americas dominate GMO production 1.9. Transgenic crops have clear benefits for farmers 1.10. Future directions for transgenic crops 1.11. A comparison of genome editing techniques 1.12. CRISPR could significantly reduce time to market 1.13. A comparison of genetic manipulation technologies 1.14. Synthetic biology in agriculture 1.15. How could synthetic biology benefit agriculture? 1.16. Plants as production systems compared with other cells 1.17. Global differences in regulation for genetic engineering 1.18. Regulating GM foods in the US and EU 1.19. Global policy developments towards gene editing 1.20. Consumer attitudes to technology in agriculture 1.21. The “Big Four” of crop biotechnology 1.22. Total agricultural revenue of the Big Four (2010-2019) 1.23. Could CRISPR democratise crop biotechnology? 1.24. Crop biotechnology start-up landscape 1.25. The future of crop biotechnology 1.26. Crop biotechnology forecast by method 1.27. Global crop biotechnology market forecast by region 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1. 21st century agriculture is facing major challenges 2.2. The problem with pathogens 2.3. Types of plant pathogens 2.4. Global pesticide use 2.5. The need for alternatives to conventional herbicides 2.6. The threat of topsoil erosion 2.7. The environmental impacts of food and agriculture 2.8. Crop biotechnology 2.9. How could crop biotechnology help? 2.10. Crop biotechnology case study: Roundup Ready 2.11. Genetics can help save dying crops 2.12. The power of crop biotechnology: The Green Revolution 2.13. Transgenic crops have clear benefits for farmers 2.14. A brief history of key biotechnology advances 2.15. What is the plant microbiome? 2.16. Manipulating the microbiome to improve crops 2.17. Other IDTechEx reports on genetic technologies 3. AN INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES 3.1. The basics 3.1.1. What is DNA? 3.1.2. Genetics: jargon buster 3.1.3. Genetics: jargon buster 3.2. DNA sequencing 3.2.1. DNA sequencing 3.2.2. Costs of DNA sequencing have fallen dramatically 3.2.3. First generation DNA sequencing – Sanger sequencing 3.2.4. Next generation sequencing (NGS) 3.2.5. Third generation sequencing 3.3. Artificial DNA synthesis 3.3.1. Artificial gene synthesis 3.3.2. DNA Synthesis: past and present 3.3.3. Phosphoramidite method for oligonucleotide synthesis 3.4. Genome editing 3.4.1. Genome editing 3.4.2. Approaches to genome editing 3.4.3. TALENs and ZFNs 3.4.4. CRISPR 3.4.5. CRISPR-Cas9: A Bacterial Immune System 3.4.6. CRISPR can have multiple outcomes 3.4.7. What can CRISPR do? 3.4.8. A comparison of genome editing techniques 3.4.9. A comparison of genome editing techniques 3.4.10. The IP situation for gene editing technologies 3.4.11. Patent applications in ZFNs, TALENs and meganucleases 3.4.12. Key players in genome editing 3.4.13. Who owns CRISPR-Cas9 and why is it so problematic? 3.4.14. The Broad Institute and the University of California 3.4.15. The Broad Institute and the University of California 3.4.16. Commercialising CRISPR-Cas9 3.4.17. Licensing Agreements with Commercial Enterprises 3.4.18. The wide landscape of CRISPR patents 3.4.19. The CRISPR race 3.4.20. Companies are Finding Ways of Avoiding Royalties 3.4.21. Products Engineered Using CRISPR-Cas9 3.4.22. The Outlook for CRISPR-Cas9 4. GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURE 4.1. Genetic engineering 4.1.1. What is genetic engineering? 4.1.2. A comparison of genetic engineering techniques 4.2. Selective breeding 4.2.1. Selective breeding: a form of genetic manipulation 4.2.2. Types of selective breeding 4.2.3. Problems with selective breeding 4.2.4. Genomics: improving the efficiency of selective breeding 4.2.5. Selective breeding for improving tomatoes 4.2.6. Marker-assisted selection 4.2.7. Marker-assisted selection: disease resistant tomatoes 4.2.8. Quantitative trait locus analysis 4.2.9. Principles of mapping quantitative trait loci 4.2.10. QTL analysis and selective breeding: Equinom 4.2.11. Equinom 4.2.12. Using the microbiome to improve disease resistance 4.2.13. Networking the microbiome 4.2.14. The importance of diversity 4.2.15. Academic examples of bacterial treatments for crop improvement 4.2.16. Evogene 4.2.17. AgBiome 4.3. Genetically modified organisms 4.3.1. Genetically modified organisms 4.3.2. GMOs: issues with terminology 4.3.3. Mutagenesis 4.3.4. Distribution of mutagenic crops worldwide 4.3.5. RNA interference (RNAi) 4.3.6. Transgenic organisms 4.3.7. Genetic engineering is widely used in agriculture 4.3.8. The Americas dominate GMO production 4.3.9. Examples of transgenic crops approved in the USA 4.3.10. Future directions for transgenic crops 4.4. Genome editing in agriculture 4.4.1. How is genome editing different to genetic modification? 4.4.2. Calyxt: the first commercial gene edited crop 4.4.3. Calyxt 4.4.4. The CRISPR revolution 4.4.5. CRISPR could significantly reduce time to market 4.4.6. Delivery of CRISPR reagents to plants 4.4.7. How CRISPR is being used to improve crops 4.4.8. CRISPR in action: domesticating wild tomatoes 4.4.9. CRISPR in action: non-browning mushrooms 4.4.10. Challenges with CRISPR in agriculture 4.4.11. Future directions for CRISPR research in agriculture 4.4.12. Companies developing CRISPR-enhanced crops 4.4.13. Corteva Agriscience 4.4.14. Improved waxy corn: the first CRISPR-edited product? 4.4.15. Benson Hill 4.4.16. Epigenetics 4.4.17. MSH1 silencing – crop epigenetics in action 4.4.18. Epicrop Technologies 4.4.19. A comparison of genetic manipulation technologies 4.5. Synthetic biology 4.5.1. What is synthetic biology? 4.5.2. Defining synthetic biology 4.5.3. The difference between synthetic biology and genetic engineering 4.5.4. The Scope of Synthetic Biology is Vast 4.5.5. IDTechEx research on synthetic biology 4.5.6. Ginkgo Bioworks 4.5.7. Ginkgo’s automated approach to strain engineering 4.5.8. Zymergen 4.5.9. Synthetic biology in agriculture 4.5.10. How could synthetic biology benefit agriculture? 4.5.11. Crop Enhancement 4.5.12. Elo Life Systems 4.5.13. Increasing nutritional value 4.5.14. Synthetic metabolism to increase yields 4.5.15. C3 and C4 photosynthesis 4.5.16. Synthetic biology for improved drought tolerance 4.5.17. Yield10 Bioscience 4.5.18. Photoautotroph-based production 4.5.19. Mosspiration Biotech 4.5.20. Plant synthetic biology for biofuel production 4.5.21. Leaf Expression Systems 4.5.22. Plants as production systems compared with other cells 4.5.23. Challenges of recombinant protein production in plants 4.5.24. Renew Biopharma 4.5.25. BioBricks and PhytoBricks 4.5.26. Plant synthetic biology in action: phytosensors 4.5.27. Reducing fertiliser usage 4.5.28. Engineering the plant microbiome 4.5.29. Pivot Bio 4.5.30. Joyn Bio 5. MARKETS 5.1. Regulations 5.1.1. The state of regulations for genetic engineering 5.1.2. Global differences in regulation for genetic engineering 5.1.3. Regulating GM foods in the US and EU 5.1.4. The US approach to GM food regulation 5.1.5. EPA, USDA and FDA all play a role in GMO regulations 5.1.6. The Plant Biotechnology Consultation Program 5.1.7. US regulations case study: Bt11 corn 5.1.8. The US is introducing labelling requirements 5.1.9. US regulations and genome editing 5.1.10. The EU approach to GM food regulation 5.1.11. The EU approach to GM food regulation 5.1.12. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 5.1.13. EU regulations on mutagenesis 5.1.14. EU regulations: implications for gene editing 5.1.15. EU regulations: fit for purpose? 5.1.16. Europe’s restrictive regulations are stymying innovation 5.1.17. Outlook on genetic technologies in Europe 5.1.18. Japanese regulations on GMOs 5.1.19. Chinese regulations and attitudes on GMOs 5.1.20. Global policy developments towards gene editing 5.2. Public acceptance 5.2.1. Consumer attitudes to technology in agriculture 5.2.2. Consumer hostility to GMOs 5.2.3. “Monsanto is evil”: a lesson in public relations 5.2.4. “Monsanto is evil”: a lesson in public relations 5.2.5. Learning Lessons from the Past: Golden Rice 5.2.6. Does public opinion matter? 5.2.7. Improving public opinion 5.2.8. Will CRISPR suffer the same public hostility? 5.3. Industry overview 5.3.1. The “Big Four” of agricultural biotechnology 5.3.2. Consolidation in agriculture – acquisitions by the Big Four 5.3.3. Bayer Crop Science 5.3.4. Bayer Crop Science: main products and brands 5.3.5. Bayer Crop Science: important collaborations 5.3.6. Bayer Crop Science product innovation pipeline 5.3.7. Bayer’s acquisition of Monsanto: the worst deal ever? 5.3.8. BASF 5.3.9. BASF Agricultural Solutions 5.3.10. BASF’s agricultural innovation pipeline 5.3.11. Plant biotechnology is extremely expensive 5.3.12. Syngenta (ChemChina) 5.3.13. ChemChina’s acquisition of Syngenta 5.3.14. Corteva Agriscience 5.3.15. Total agricultural revenue of the Big Four (2010-2019) 5.3.16. Nutritionally-enhanced crops: why so slow? 5.3.17. The Golden Rice Project and omega-3 enriched canola 5.3.18. Could CRISPR democratise agricultural biotechnology? 5.3.19. Crop biotechnology start-up landscape 5.3.20. The rise of genetic engineering and subsequent patents 5.3.21. Impact on Economies, and Changing Opinions 5.3.22. To GM, or not to GM…that is the question 5.3.23. Private sector innovation is driving agricultural biotech 5.3.24. Agricultural biotech innovation is a global effort 5.3.25. Distribution of plant biotechnology innovation clusters 6. FORECASTS 6.1. The future of crop biotechnology 6.2. Crop biotechnology forecast by method 6.3. Forecast: crop selective breeding 6.4. Forecast: GMOs (transgenics & cisgenics) 6.5. Forecast: gene editing 6.6. Global crop biotechnology market forecast by region 7. THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 7.1. Preface 7.2. Background on COVID-19 7.3. COVID-19 as a pandemic 7.4. Economic impact of COVID-19 7.5. The impact of COVID-19 on IDTechEx forecasts 7.6. The impact of COVID-19 on agriculture 7.7. COVID-19 and agricultural biotechnology 7.8. COVID-19: can plant biotechnology help?



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